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How Do Softeners Convert Hard Water to Soft?

Posted on August 6, 2021 by Branden Mausbach

Water Softeners work to convert hard water to soft water. Hard water has minerals such as calcium and magnesium that are positively charged ions. The existence of positive charged ions is what causes magnesium and calcium to dissolve less readily in water. As a consequence of the high concentration of minerals, water tastes"salty" even though there's absolutely not any sodium present.

Water Softeners not just operate to get rid of excessive magnesium and calcium but also to eliminate iron, lead, radium, copper, and sediment.

The principal principal that softeners operate on is the ion exchange. Water softeners have a resin tank that comprises the ion exchange brine tank and the control head that's the mechanism that determines if the regeneration method is to occur.

In the resin tank are resin beads that contain sites which hold potassium or sodium ions. The positively charged hard water ions are drawn to the beads and swap themselves with the sodium or potassium ions. The method continues until there are no more sites for the exchange to occur and the resin is considered exhausted and have to be"regenerated". In this process, the sodium or potassium brine solution is rinsed throught the resin leaving the calcium/magnesium and other hard water minerals to be bumped off and lost down the drain.

Many worried about salt intake in their diet will stress whether the sodium exchange in the water purification procedure is going to have an ill effect on their health.

The FDA definition for sodium in drinking water is: sodium free=up to 28 mg,very low sodium=28 to 197 mg and reduced sodium=197-789 mg.

The quantity of sodium in water exchanged by a water softener is regarded as a trace amount and won't be harmful for anybody wishing to restrict their sodium intake.

10 grains of water ions per gallon will be traded to 78 mgl sodium, 15 grains exchanged for 119 mgl sodium and 20 grains for 158 mgl sodium.

Potassium chloride salt subsitute is also widely available but a little more expensive than sodium.

You might have heard the expression grain capacity when contemplating a water softener and wonder just what it means and how to compute it.

Grain capacity = how much hardness the softener will remove before it requires regeneration.

1.0 cubit foot of resin 30,000 grain capacity

1.5 cubit foot of resin 45,000 grain capacity

2.0 cubit foot of resin 60,000 grain capacity

Depending upon your family's daily water usage and how hard the water is will determine the grain capacity required. It's suggested to obtain a water purifier with the grain capability to allow for regeneration no less than 3 days apart.